Earth's orbit is broken into different cycles greatly affecting our weather.
- Milankovitch Cycles - Over thousands of years, changes in Earth's orbit causes an increase or decrease in the amount of the Sun's energy that gets to the planet.
- Eccentricity - The shape of Earth's orbit around the Sun becomes slightly more and then less oval every 100,000 years.
- Precission - Earth wobbles on it axis as it spins, completing a full wobble every 23,000 years.
- Tilt - : The angle of the Earth's axis relative to the plane of its orbit changes about three degrees every 41,000 years
What does all this mean? It means Earth's rotation changes every year and unless your 100,000 years old and kept historical records we don't know exactly what to expect.
Over the next 10,000 years, northern hemisphere winters will become longer and its summers will become shorter.
Today, the northern hemisphere summer is 4.66 days longer than its associated winter and spring is 2.9 days longer than fall.
Fluctuations in the number of cosmic rays hitting the atmosphere directly alter the amount of clouds covering the planet.(This is still new to scientists and they are just starting to learn how important cosmic rays are)
Climate models do not include the cosmic ray effect.
Cosmic rays are high-speed sub-atomic particles, mostly nuclei and protons. The come from black holes and colliding galaxies.
Interstellar dust increasing and expected to increase by 3 times the amount by 2013. The potential effects are not well known, according to Landgraf and his colleagues at the Max-Planck-Institute. The increase is thought to be related to an 11-year cycle of sunspot activity.
The solar system is plowing toward the fringes of a galactic cloud known as the G-cloud. The time of the entry into the G-cloud is unknown, but is expected to occur any time in the next 10,000 years.
Every year in December a helium-rich breeze from the stars hits Earth for a few weeks. It cannot penetrate to the surface and has little if any affect on the Earth but it does prove that we are constantly being hit by gases, protons and random cosmic rays from else where in the Universe.